There are few high-throughput,
in-depth electrochemical tests suitable for manufacturing applications.
Batteries are complex electrochemical devices that undergo extensive testing through materials development, pilot, and scale-up. A wide array of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are employed to evaluate the materials and chemical processes within the cell. However, these in-depth testing methods require extensive expertise to interpret and are time-intensive, expensive, and often destructive, limiting their use to the laboratory. At manufacturing scale, analysis methods are limited to more basic measurements (e.g., dimensional, voltage, current). While these basic measurements are useful for catching obvious defects, they are only indirect measurements of the key underlying electrochemical phenomena that determine long-term cell performance and reliability.